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Surface Saturated Dry (SSD) is a term used in the field of concrete construction to describe a specific moisture condition of a concrete surface. SSD refers to a state in which the surface of concrete is moist and does not have any standing water on it.
When applying a concrete overlay to an existing concrete surface, ensuring proper bonding between the overlay and the substrate is crucial for long-term performance. SSD conditions play a significant role in achieving this bond. Here’s how it improves bonding:

1.    Moisture balance: SSD helps establish a moisture equilibrium between the overlay and the existing concrete surface. This balance ensures that both materials have a similar moisture content, which is essential for the overlay to bond effectively.

2.    Reduced water competition: When the existing concrete surface is dry, it can rapidly absorb water from the overlay mix, leading to premature drying and reduced bonding. By saturating the surface and allowing it to reach an SSD condition, the potential for water competition is minimized. This allows the overlay to retain sufficient moisture needed for proper hydration and bonding.

3.    Enhanced inter-facial contact: A moist surface promotes better contact and adhesion between the overlay and the existing concrete. The presence of moisture can facilitate the formation of chemical bonds and interlocking between the two layers, improving the overall strength and durability of the bond.

4.    Reduced surface porosity: SSD conditions help reduce the surface porosity of the existing concrete, limiting the absorption of water from the overlay. This mitigates the risk of excessive water loss or plastic shrinkage cracks in the overlay, which can weaken the bond.

To achieve SSD conditions, the existing concrete surface is typically saturated with water and allowed to reach a state where the surface appears damp but does not have any standing water. This can be accomplished through various methods, such as wetting the surface with a misting spray, using wet burlap or polyethylene sheets, or employing other moisture-retaining techniques.
By optimizing the moisture condition through SSD, the bonding between the Elephant Armor® overlay and the existing surface is enhanced, leading to a more reliable and durable composite structure.


While SSD is a common practice in the industry, it’s important to understand its limitations and potential challenges. Here are some key points regarding the risks associated with SSD in concrete repairs:

Bonding Issues: SSD condition requires the repair area to be dampened but not excessively wet. In some cases, achieving the ideal SSD condition can be challenging, and if the moisture content is not controlled properly, it can impact the bonding between the repair material and the existing substrate. Insufficient moisture or excessive dryness can result in reduced bond strength and compromised adhesion.
Moisture Migration: When applying the repair material in SSD condition, there is a risk of moisture migration between the repair material and the existing substrate. This can lead to differential drying and shrinkage, potentially causing cracks or debonding at the interface between the repair material and the substrate.
Surface Contamination: The SSD condition requires a clean and dust-free repair area. If the surface is not properly cleaned or contains contaminants such as oil, grease, or organic stains, it can hinder the bond between the repair material and the substrate. Contaminants can act as a barrier, preventing proper adhesion and compromising the long-term performance of the repair.
Time Sensitivity: Working with SSD condition requires careful timing. The repair material needs to be placed while the surface is still in the desired SSD state—neither too wet nor too dry. If the slurry coat or repair material is applied too early or too late, it can result in inadequate bonding and compromised repair quality.
Workmanship Variability: Achieving consistent SSD conditions across a larger repair area or in different environmental conditions can be challenging. Variations in surface moisture content, temperature, and humidity can affect the SSD state and introduce inconsistencies in the repair process. This variability can impact the bonding and overall quality of the repair.


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Using Saturated Surface Dry (SSD)

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